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135 Methods and Techniques of Energy Conservation

Energy conservation means saving any form of energy that we use, which reduces the need for energy services and can result in increased environmental quality, financial security and savings on utility bills.

Type of Energy Conservation

There are two types of energy conservation,

  1. the first energy conservation for the domestic sector

  2. and the second is energy conservation for Industries.

Both these two types of energy conservation have common three common ways of energy conservation.

  • Conservation of Electricity.

  • Conservation of Fuel.

  • Conservation of Heat.

  • Conservation of Water.

Conservation of Electricity:

Saving electrical power is one of the most simple but is one of the most efficient ways of energy conservation. All you need to do is following things

1. Being aware of how energy efficient are your home appliances

2. Change the habit of unnecessary usage of electricity.

3. Use home appliances smartly so that you get most work done from them with less power consumption.

Conservation of Fuel:

Saving fuel isn’t an easy task, because as the vehicle is getting old it consumes more fuel. Saving fuel is completely depending upon your habit of using it. All your need to do is learn how to drive efficient so that you can save more on fuel.

Conservation of Heat:

Heat is produced either by burning fuel or by using electricity hence conservation of heat also means conservation of fuel or electricity.

Conservation of Water:

It’s a point of discussion whether conservation of water is related to energy conservation or not. But as you know it takes energy to pumps groundwater, moves surface water supplies, treat raw water to potable standards, and distribute it to their customers.

And you use electricity to cool or heat the water for drinking, washing and bathing. Saving water also means saving electricity in a direct way.


Lighting System

#01: Let’s start this with the easiest and one of the best energy-saving devices is the light switch. Turn off lights when not required.

#02: Switch to home automation, many automatic devices can help in saving the energy used in lighting.

#03: Use task lighting as far as possible, which focuses light where it's needed. A reading lamp, for example, lights only reading material rather than the whole room.

#04: Use dimmer switches. These switched able you to light a room as much as you need, which means you can cut the amount of light you do need.

#05: Avoid switching lights on and off frequently. This affects the life span of the lamps.

#06: LED-based household lights could reduce energy consumption by 88% (compared to the ordinary bulb) and 50% (compared to CFLs).

Remember: Brightness is determined by lumens (the SI unit of luminous flux, equal to the amount of light emitted per second) compare to the bulb with higher lumens and less wattage.

Lumens per wattage comparison: Incandescent (12.5-17.5 lm/W) < CFL (45-75 lm/W) < LED (80-100 lm/W).

#07: As far as possible, install lamps in corners of rooms to reflect light from two wall surfaces instead of one.

#08: Don’t use dark-coloured surface in workrooms. These reduce the reflected light levels and increase the number of lamps required to illuminate the space.

#09: Do you know? Dirty tube lights and bulbs reflect less light and can absorb 50 per cent of the light; dust your tube lights and lamps regularly.

#10: Install tube Lights in common areas and staircase landings to be reduced to alternate ones and or one tube light from twin-tube light fitting units be reduced to one tube light.

#11: Electronic ballasts can reduce power consumption by 20%.

#12: Children are advised to study in one room and with individual table lamps. Advise them to switch off the individual lamps. Children to utilize morning hours & broad day Sunlight for studies, rather than burning midnight lamps in its verbatim sense.


Room Air Conditioners

#13: What should be your first line of defence against summer heat? Stick to use of ceiling or table fan as the first line of defence.

[Ceiling fans, for instance, cost about 30 paise an hour to operate - much less than air conditioners (Rs.10.00 per hour)].

#14: Do not install AC units on the west and south walls as these are exposed to direct sunlight through a major part of the day during summers.

#15: Choose External blinds over internal blinds to reduce heat ingress through glass by up to 80%

#16: [1] External Movable Shading Systems or EMSYSs are installed on the glazed surface of the building facade. They control the solar heat gain while also providing natural daylight indoors.

#17: [1] Good quality EMSYSs can reduce heat ingress through glass by up to 80%. Controlling the solar heat ingress results in a significant reduction in the cooling/HVAC load of the buildings.

#18: [1] In the case of glazing made of single clear glass, almost 80% of the solar radiation falling on the glazing enters the building in the form of heat.

#19: [1] The Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC) of such a glass is said to be 80%. However, if EMSYSs are provided and they are lowered/closed during daytime when solar radiation is directly falling on the glazing, most of the solar radiation is reflected, and the SHGC can be reduced to as low as 12%.

#20: Reduce the power consumption of air-conditioning by as much as 40 per cent by shading your home's windows and walls. [Plant shrubs on rooftop or balcony to keep the day's hottest sun off your house.]

#21: Every one-degree increases in the air-conditioner temperature setting results in a saving of 6 per cent of electricity consumed.

#22: One will use 3 to 5 per cent less energy for each degree air conditioner is set above 22°C (71.5°F), so set the thermostat of room air conditioner at 25°C (77°F) to provide the most comfort at the least cost.

#23: A good air conditioner will cool and dehumidify a room in about 30 minutes, so use a timer and leave the unit off for some time.

#24: Keep doors to air-conditioned rooms closed [use hydraulic door closers] as often as possible.

#25: Don’t forget to clean the air-conditioner filter every month. A dirty air filter reduces airflow and may damage the unit. Clean filters enable the unit to cool down quickly and use less energy.


Ceiling Fan

#33: Choose BEE 5-star super energy saving Fans over ordinary fans

#34: Replace conventional regulators with electronic regulators for ceiling fans.

#35: Height of the fan relative to the ceiling. If the fan is too close to the ceiling, the airflow is restricted; that is, the fan will not be able to draw as much air through its blade as it has the potential to do. For this reason, “Hugger” style fans (those which mounted directly to the ceiling without the use of a down rod) are all inherently disadvantaged.

#36: The distance that a fan should be mounted from the ceiling is directly correlated with its air moving potential; no fan should be mounted with its blade closer than 24 inches to the ceiling.

#37: Pitch of the fan’s blades. The angle at which the fan’s blades tilted relative to X-axis is referred to as the blade pitch. The steeper the pitch the greater the airflow. Since increased pitch also means increased drag, only fans with well-made motors can support steep pitches. Cheaply made fans typically have a pitch between 9 and 13 degrees.



#38: First make sure that the refrigerator is kept away from all sources of heat, including direct sunlight, radiators and appliances such as the oven, and cooking range.

#39: Make sure that the refrigerator's rubber door seals are clean and tight. They should hold a slip of paper snugly. If paper slips out easily, replace the door seals. Or when it’s dark, place a lit flashlight inside the refrigerator and close the door. If light around the door is seen, the seals need to be replaced.

#40: Refrigerator motors and compressors generate heat, so allow enough space for continuous airflow around the refrigerator. If the heat can't escape, the refrigerator's cooling system will work harder and use more energy.

#41: A full refrigerator is a fine thing, but be sure to allow adequate air circulation inside.

#42: Think about what you need before opening the refrigerator door. You'll reduce the amount of time the door remains open.

#43: Allow hot and warm foods to cool and cover them well before putting them in the refrigerator. The refrigerator will use less energy and condensation will be reduced.

#44: When dust builds up on the refrigerator's condenser coils, the motor works harder and uses more electricity. Clean the coils regularly to make sure that air can circulate freely.

#45: For manual defrost refrigerator, accumulation of ice reduces the cooling power by acting as unwanted insulation. Defrost freezer compartment regularly for a manual defrost refrigerator.

#46: Keep your refrigerator and freezer at the right temperature. If they are only 2-3 degrees colder than necessary, energy consumption may go up by approx 25%.

#47: Make sure that the refrigerator is not placed against outside-facing wall or walls exposed to direct sunlight.

#48: Do not put uncovered liquids in the refrigerator. The liquids give off vapours that add to the compressor workload.

#49: Defrost freezer compartment regularly for a manual defrost refrigerator.

#50: Make sure that you are using a refrigerator that is approximately sized for your needs. If your fridge is too small, you may be overworking. If it is too large, then you are potentially wasting energy and home space.


How to save on Electric Iron?

#51: Select iron boxes with automatic temperature cutoff

#52: You should use the appropriate regulator position for ironing

#53: Do not put more water on clothes while ironing

#54: Do not iron wet clothes


How to save on Water Heater?

#55: Let’s go to the most efficient one Install Solar Water Heating System.

#56: You could save 18 per cent of the energy used at a higher setting by reducing the water heater's temperature setting from 60 degrees to 50 degrees C.

#57: You can reduce heat losses, by insulating hot water pipes, especially where they run through unheated areas. Pro tip: never insulate plastic pipes

#58: A dripping (water flows slowly in tiny drops) faucet (tap) wastes water and if it’s dripping hot water, its wasting energy too. Often requiring nothing more than a new washer, fixing leaks is one of the quickest and least expensive ways of reducing energy and water bills.

#59: Another way you can reduce waste is to take showers or baths depending on which uses less hot water than baths, others say baths use more. They are both right. Which is correct for you depends on how long and hot your showers are and how deep and warm your baths are.

#60: Using less hot water may be easier than you think. Water-conserving showerheads and faucet aerators can cut hot water use in half. To see if this will work for you, first determine what your faucet and shower flow rates are now.

#61: To select the right water heater for your home, you need to consider family size and whether your usage would be considered high or low demand. It is assumed that you know your family size, so all you have to determine is your user profile.


Saving in the Kitchen

Microwave & Electric Kettles

#62: Did you know? That microwaves save energy by reducing cooking times. In fact, you can save up to 50 per cent on your cooling energy costs by using a microwave oven instead of a regular oven, especially for small quantities of food.

#63: Use an electric kettle to heat water. It's more energy-efficient than using an electric cooktop element.

#64: If you have a big family? Then for large items, stove-top cooking is most efficient, especially with gas.

#65: Remember, microwaves cook food from the outside edge toward the centre of the dish, so if you're cooking more than one item, place larger and thicker items on the outside.

#66: When buying a new electric kettle, choose one that has an automatic shut-off button and a heat-resistant handle.

#67: It takes more energy to heat a dirty kettle. Regularly clean your electric kettle by combining boiling water and vinegar to remove mineral deposits.

#68: Don't overfill the kettle for just one drink. Heat only the amount of water you need.


#69: Check the seal on your oven door to see if there are cracks or tears in it.

#70: Develop the habit of “lids-on” cooking to permit lower temperature settings.

#71: Carefully measure water used for cooking to avoid having to heat more than is needed.

#72: Begin cooking on the highest heat until liquid begins to boil. Then lower the heat control settings and allow food to simmer until fully cooked.

#73: Rearrange oven shelves before turning your oven on – and don’t peep at food in the oven! Every time you open the oven door, 4°-5° is lost.

#74: When preheating an oven for baking, time the preheat period carefully. Five to eight minutes should be sufficient.


#75: Organized cooking activity can save about 20% of Energy.

#76: Use the right quantity of water required for cooking and reduce gas/kerosene usage by 65%.

#77: Cook on low flame as far as possible and save 6 to 10% energy.

#78: The pressure cooker should be loaded 2/3rd of the foodstuff is solid & hard and ½ if loaded with liquid. Properly used pressure cookers can save up to 50 to 75% of energy as well as time.

#79: Cook your food in a solar cooker and save the cost of 2 LPG Cylinders annually.

#80: When cooking on a gas burner, use moderate flame settings to conserve LPG.

#81: Remember that a blue flame means your gas stove is operating efficiently.

#82: Yellowish flame is an indicator that the burner needs cleaning.

#83: Use a pressure cooker as much as possible.

#84: Use lids to cover the pans while cooking.

#85: Bring items taken out of refrigerators (like vegetables, milk etc) to room temperature before placing them on the gas stove for heating.


Washing Machine

#86: Washing machines can account for as much as 20% of the electricity you use.

#87: Use Cold water, as almost 90% of the energy consumed by washing machines goes to heating the water. Set the washing machine temperature to cold or warm and the rinse temperature to cold as often as possible.

#88: Did you know each cycle uses up to 60 to 90 litres of water? Use a washing machine on full load and plan washing periodicity to save on water too.

#89: Adding too much detergent actually hampers effective washing action and may require more energy in the form of extra rinses.

#90: Use sun power to dry your clothes.

#91: Wash only full loads of clothing but do not overload the machine. Sort laundry and schedule washes so that a complete job can be done with a few cycles of the machine carrying its full capacity, rather than a greater number of cycles with light loads.

#92: Soak or pre-wash the clothes for effective cleaning.

#93: Dry towels and heavier cotton in a separate load from lighter-weight clothes.

#94: Don’t over-dry your clothes. If your machine has a moisture sensor, use it.

#95: Clean the lint screen in the dryer after every load to improve air circulation and prevent fire hazards.

#96: Periodically, use the long nozzle tip on your vacuum cleaner to remove the lint that collects below the lint screen in the lint screen slot of your clothes dryer.

#97: Use the cool-down cycle to allow the clothes to finish drying with the heat remaining in the dryer.



#98: Are you still using a desktop computer? Replace it with a laptop. Desktop computers consume an average of 60 to 200 watts of power whereas Laptops consume an average power of 20 to 50 watts

#99: Screen savers save computer screens, not energy. Start-ups and shutdowns do not use any extra energy, nor are they hard on your computer components. In fact, shutting computers down when you are finished using them actually reduces system wear - and saves energy.

#100: If your computer runs 24 hours a day, for instance, used-more power than an energy-efficient refrigerator. Turn off your home/office equipment when not in use.

#101: If your computer must be left on, turn off the monitor; this device alone uses more than half the system's energy.

#102: Setting computers, monitors, and copiers to use sleep-mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by approximately 40%. #103: Battery chargers, such as those for laptops, cell phones and digital cameras, draw power whenever they are plugged in and are very inefficient. Pull the plug and save.

#104: Purchase flat-screen LED monitors.

#105: Activate and standardize ‘power down’ on new and existing PCs


Saving on Fuel (Petrol)

#106: Drive between 45-55 Km/H Drive slow and steady. The faster you go, the more wind resistance your vehicle will face. If you go at speeds above 60 Km/H, you will waste petrol. Tests on Indian cars prove that you can get up to 40 % extra mileage at 45-55 Km/H as against 80 Km/H.

Remember: Avoid accelerating or decelerating unnecessarily. Avoid banking by anticipating stops and curves well in advance. Tests show that a reduction in speed leads to no appreciable rise in commuting time. Much less than what most people think.

#107: Keep your engine healthy Tests on a large number of cars prove that you can save as much as 6% by tuning your car regularly. If your engine emits black smoke, has poor pulling power or consumes large quantities of oil, get it checked immediately at a reputed garage. A delay may prove more expensive in terms of petrol and oil as compared to the cost of an overhaul.

Remember: The use of bi-metallic spark plugs saves over 1.5% fuel and reduces exhaust emissions too. Get your car serviced at every 5000 km.

#108: Drive in the Correct Gear Incorrect gear shifting can lead to as much as a 20% increase in fuel consumption. Start your car in the 1st gear only, except if you are in a muddy patch or going downhill then engage the 2nd gear.

Remember: For city driving, change to a higher gear when you are sure the engine will not struggle. Get into top gear as soon as possible. Use the same gear for the uphill and downhill journey. It is advisable to follow the manufacturer's recommendation.

#109: Don’t wait for your car to warm up Instead, drive in low gear till the engine warms up. Use choke briefly only when necessary.

Remember: At 10°C and below, your fuel consumption per kilometre doubles when you make trips of 5 km or less. So combine trips. Do not park a car so that you have to reverse with a cold engine This will consume more fuel. Install an engine-heating system (in cold regions) in your car if it does not have one.

#110: Good Braking Habits Stop-and-go driving wastes fuel. When you slam on the brakes, a lot of useful energy is wasted in the form of heat. A good driver always anticipates stops.

Remember: Test wheels for free rotation when your car is being serviced. The binding of brakes restricts free wheel movement and the engine consumes more petrol in order to overcome resistance. Check wheel alignment at regular intervals.

#111: Keep your Foot off the Clutch Use clutch only when you change gears. Riding the clutch causes loss of energy and damages to clutch linings.

Remember: Use your handbrake when stopped on an upgrade and don’t forget to release it when restarting. Don’t manipulate the clutch and accelerator to stay stationary because it wastes fuel.

#112: Clean Air Filter Regularly The air filter prevents dust from Fouling the engine. Dust causes rapid wear of engine components and increases fuel consumption.

Remember: Cylinder bores wear out 45 times faster in engines without air-cleaners Clean air filters at every time-up.

#113: Watch Your Tyre Pressure Under-inflated tyres increase rolling resistance, which leads to higher petrol consumption.

Remember: Tests show that a 25% decrease in tyre pressure can cost you 5-10% more on petrol and 25% on tyre life. Use radial tyres for 3-7% fuel economy, longer tyre life and greater riding comfort.

#114: When you stop your car, stop the engine: Always keep your car ready to start. Keep the battery, dynamo, self-starter and fan-belt in good condition. This will ensure a quick start whenever you need it.

Remember: Switch off the engine at stops of over 15-20 seconds.

#115: Use the recommended grade of oil, check the car manual and oil manufacturer’s recommendations, before using any particular grade of oil. Always use multi-grade oil equivalent to SPCC/SGCC type for added benefits.

Remember: Engine oil that is thicker than the recommended oil can cause a 2% increase in fuel consumption. Change oil filter along with engine oil.

#116: Plan Your Route: Rush hour, or stop-and-go traffic, can waste fuel excessively. You will get more mileage from each litre if you take a less congested route, even though it is slightly longer.

Remember: Fuel consumption in a highly congested road can be double the normal.

#117: Reduce Loads: Unnecessary loads increase fuel consumption. Do you really need to carry the luggage rack?

Remember: A reduction of weight by 50 kg can lead up to 2% saving in fuel when driving in the city. Remember that overhead racks increase wind resistance leading to higher fuel consumption.

#118: Reduce drag: Reduce drag by placing items inside the car or trunk rather than on roof racks, which can decrease your fuel economy by 5% or more.

#119: Share Your car for car pools: Look for people who go in the same direction as you. You can share your car and the costs.

#120: Plan Your Trips: Before you start on a trip, ask yourself two questions: Is this trip really essential? Can I combine this trip with other trips in the same direction?

#121: Using cruise control: Using cruise control on the highway helps you maintain a constant speed and, in most cases, will save gas.

#122: Windows Vs Air conditioning

It is more fuel-efficient to open the window overusing air-conditioning when driving. Air conditioning can increase your fuel consumption by as much as 5%. However, we appreciate that open windows are not always pleasant on extremely hot days or at higher speeds, so to save fuel, if you do use air-con, try to use it sparingly.


Water Conservation

#123: Use a broom instead of a hose to clean the sidewalks or to wash the car.

#124: Water your lawn only when it is needed.

#125: Avoid unnecessary flushing of the toilets. Dispose of the tissues, cigarettes and other waste into the bin instead of toilets.

#126: Don’t leave the tap running while washing the dishes in the kitchen.

#127: Avoid leakage of water from the taps.

#128: Turn the tap off when not in use especially when you brush your teeth or wash clothes.

#129: Check the leakage of water in the toilets. Also, get to check the hidden water leaks.

#130: Never throw the water unnecessary on roads which can be used for gardening and cleaning.

#131: Use a minimum amount of water to bath.

#132: Water Waste restrictions.

#133: Improvement in the water distribution system.

#134: Capture the water that is leaking and repair it as soon as possible.

#135: Install small shower heads to reduce the flow of water.

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